Chapter 1 Background

William James

Every one knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in a clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal with others

That was William James, one of the founders of modern psychology, writing in 1890, which was the very beginning of the scientific study of psychology. In the quote, he appeals to common sense. Common sense was relevant because some things about attention have been understood for a very long time, even if not studied scientifically.

The Cardsharps

The Cardsharps was painted by Caravaggio around the year 1595. It depicts a young man getting duped in a card game by two others. The older man is looking over the rube’s shoulder and signalling something about his cards to his young confederate. The confederate is reaching behind his back to pull a hidden card from his breeches. The scene was considered to be a realistic scene of common life in Italy at the time.

Clearly some people of that time knew how to manipulate the attention of others so that they would notice some things and not others. I don’t just mean the people Caravaggio painted; in order to create a painting that would direct the viewer’s attention in the way he intended, the painter himself must have had a substantial understanding of attention.

Much of the knowledge of attention possessed by painters, as well as by con men like those depicted in the painting, was likely implicit rather than having a basis in the mental processes that can be uncovered through laboratory experiments. It was only in the twentieth century that scientists began doing extensive experimentation, and even then attention was studied very little relative to memory, perception, or cognition, until the 1970s.

There is still much, then, for science to learn. A good starting point continues to be people’s everyday understanding of attention - what is sometimes called folk psychology. Some aspects of the folk psychological understanding of attention is common enough, and old enough, that it has become embedded in our language:

  • Please “pay attention!”
    • Implies one has to choose something (“attend” to it) to fully process it.
  • “Sorry, I wasn’t listening”
    • The way we use English, there’s a difference between hearing something and listening to it. Listening means we are attending to it. If we do not pay attention, we are less likely to retain something someone says, and possibly we won’t even comprehend what they said.
  • “Sorry, I missed that.”
    • People sometimes say this after someone else says something and the first person realizes that they didn’t understand what was said. In particular, people say it when they don’t think the problem was that the statement was not loud enough for them to hear. Instead, the problem is often something with attention.
  • “I didn’t notice that.” What do you think people might mean when they say that rather than choosing to instead say “I didn’t see that.”

Failures to notice things explain a substantial proportion of accidents. But why do we have to pay attention to comprehend or retain some information? That is the subject of two coming chapters (3, 4).

If you took PSYC1 at the University of Sydney, you already heard Caleb Owens’ “Cognitive Processes 2” lectures on visual attention, which were related. They had the following learning outcomes:

  • Understand and be able to give examples of situations where focused visual or auditory attention leads to limited processing of other stimuli.
  • Be able to define, distinguish and give examples of focused attention, divided attention, diffused attention, inattentional blindness, and change blindness.
  • Understand and be able to describe the difference between an early, late or flexible locus of selection.
  • Be able to both give and interpret examples which demonstrate an early, late or flexible locus of selection.
  • Be able to define and distinguish between endogenous and exogenous attention
  • Understand the role of attention according to Treisman’s FIT (feature integration theory) and the visual search evidence (for both feature and conjunction targets) which supports it.

You are not responsible for these! This year has its own list of learning outcomes (2).

We will both review material from Caleb’s lecture and bring new ideas to bear, as well as add more material. In the parts that review what Caleb already taught, I will go quickly, so you may want to review his material from last year - I have put his slides on Canvas.